World War I

World War I is a major event in the history of the world. It was a war that involved Russia, France, Britain, Italy, the United States, Japan, Romania, Serbia, Belgium, Greece, Portugal, Montenegro, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey and Bulgaria. It lasted from 1914 to 1918. The total deaths of the war came up to eleven million.

The key starting point that triggered the war was the murder of Archduke Francis Ferdinand by a Serbian terrorist group called the Black Hand. The details are recorded here. This event gave the other Austrian politicians a perfect excuse to eliminate Serbia once and for all. So they thought.

In order to do this, they needed German support, because Serbia had Russian support. The Germans gave the Austrians a ‘blank check.’

Germany meanwhile, fearing a two-front war, developed the Schlieffen Plan

The Plan was simple: attack the French as quickly as possible, then turn and drive out the Russians. But it was too simple. There was no room for mistake, no room for delay. The Germans also counted heavily on the tardiness of the Russian army.

The plan turned out to be a failure. It started with the Germans marching through neutral Belgium. Belgium, unexpectedly, fought back. That delayed the march. In France, they met stout resistance. That further delayed the march. Meanwhile, the Russians were already in Germany. The plan was chaos, the Germans were dismayed, and the French and the Russians were jubilant. Eventually, the Germans and the French settled into trench warfare which lasted for four years. Continue reading “World War I”

The History of Computer Programming Languages

Programming languages are languages that convert information given by the person using the computer into complex instructions that the computer uses to carry out tasks efficiently.

Thousands of languages have been developed over time. Nowadays technology is such that we can create programming languages that would not have been possible thirty years ago.

Human languages are both denotative and connotative, which means that they are not precise. Computer languages are denotative only, which makes them more precise.

There are low-level and high-level languages. High-level languages are easiest for humans to understand and write. They are abstract. High-level languages are translated into machine code though software programs called interpreters or compilers.

Low-level languages are difficult for humans to understand. They are not abstract. No interpreters are needed for low-level languages.

Programming languages are very complicated to learn. They take many years to master. They have existed for over fifty years. They allow us to do things on the computer which we would not be able to do without them.

 

The Factors Leading Up to World War I

World War I was started through many different circumstances. The main people who started the War were the Slavs.

There were the East Slavs, the Russians and the Ukrainians. There were the West Slavs and, mainly, there were the South Slavs. These last consisted of the Serbs, Bosnians, Croats and Slovenes. All the countries, namely Serbia, Bosnia, Croatia and Slovenia, were in the Balkans, an area within reach of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire.

The pan-slavism movement was made by the Slavic Russians to free the non-Slavic Russians from foreign rule.

Germany had, in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870, taken from France the territory of Alsace-Lorraine, which the French bitterly regretted. For this reason France went against the Germans in whatever they did. Germany’s Prime Minister, Otto van Bismarck, wanted to stall any possible alliance between the already powerful France and Russia. If that happened Germany would be fenced in on all sides, leaving no escape route.

So Bismarck created an alliance with Russia against France. But a while later, Emperor William II of Germany dismissed Bismarck and failed to keep the alliance with Russia. Continue reading “The Factors Leading Up to World War I”