Imperialism

Imperialism is considered a phenomenon of the nineteenth century, although it began long before. Imperialism is the expansion of one country into another.

England, in the 19th century, had a very strong navy. It was able to defeat most other countries, even Spain, which had the famous Spanish Armada. It also expanded into places such as India.

In France Charles X sent French troops into Algeria in 1830, and there they stayed until 1962.

Russia either annexed or conquered many countries, among them Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan. In the 1860’s Russia invaded Turkestan.

China at that time was very weak. When the East India Company started importing opium the Chinese were powerless to stop them. The First Opium War (1839-1842) was followed soon after by a second, in which the British gained many rights on Chinese soil.

Africa was the main place where everyone was congregating to grab territory. Belgium’s king, Leopold I, went to Congo, where he treated the people brutally, exterminating almost half the population. Britain focused on Egypt and South Africa, while other powers tried to grab all the territory they could. Continue reading “Imperialism”

The Unification of Germany

The man who made possible the unification of Germany was the Prussian prime minister, Otto Edward Leopold von Bismarck. He favored a strong, centralized Germany, but without Austria, which occupied some parts of what would be German territory.

The unification came about through three wars, all of which were created by von Bismarck. Number oneā€”the war with Denmark over the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein, in which Prussia won. Number two, the war with Austria, in which Austria was expelled from Germany seven weeks after the beginning of the war. Prussia then took over the entire north, calling it the German Confederation.

War number three, the Franco-Prussian war, lasted from 1870 to 1871.It began with the twisted account of a meeting between a French ambassador and King William of Prussia. This so enraged the French emperor, Napoleon III, that he decided to enter a war. Continue reading “The Unification of Germany”